Universitas Mercu Buana

Unggul, Bermutu dan Bermanfaat

Tema Jurnal: Courage/ Bravery Edisi: I (16 November 2014)

1.  Identitas Jurnal :
·         Title : The Path of Measuring Moral Courage in the Workplace
·         Author : Olga Chapa, University of Houston-Victoria
  Donna Stringer, University of Houston-Victoria
·         Location : United States—US
·         Volume : 78
·         Issue : 2
·         Pages : 17-24, 50, 2
·         Number of pages : 10
·         Publication : 2013
·         Country of publication: United States
·         ISSN: 07497075
·         ProQuest document ID: 1427268885
·         Copyright: Copyright Society for the Advancement of Management Spring 2013

Abstrak :
The more employees at all levels have the moral courage to stand up for what is right, the greater the chance that an organization's ethical infrastructure (including codes of conduct) will be effective in actuality. Ideally, moral courage is a measurable attribute, and constructing such a scale -- especially for new hires – has attracted scholarly attention. Building on previous work in this area, the authors developed a study comprising three data-collection phases: first phase, first-responders and lay people; next two phases, firefighters. Known for their bravery, firefighters provide the foundation for other types of courage. After the validation and purification process, altruism and risk-taking behavior emerged as key factors for organizations to measure, while the relative importance clearly varies with the type of organization.

2. Identitas Jurnal :
·         Title : Parenting and Gender as Predictors of Moral Courage in Late
          Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study
·         Author: Bronstein, Phyllis; Fox, Barbara J; Kamon, Jody L; Knolls, Michelle L
·         Volume: 56
·         Issue: 9-10
·         Pages : 661-674
·         Number of pages : 14
·         Publication : Mei 2007
·         Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
·         Place of publication: New York
·         ISSN: 03600025
·         ProQuest document ID: 225370759
·         Copyright: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Abstrak :
The present study was designed to examine longitudinal predictors of moral courage in late adolescence. Supportive, responsive parenting, which was measured through home observations and family reports in the fifth grade year, predicted girls' willingness in late adolescence to speak up or take action when they witnessed or experienced injustice or harm. In contrast, parenting that was harsh and restrictive predicted both girls' and boys' later reticence in those circumstances. Further, the effects of earlier parenting were mediated by individual and peer-related factors. Specifically, social competence with peers in fifth grade and self-esteem in twelfth grade mediated the effects of parenting on both moral courage and moral reticence for late adolescent girls, and self-esteem in fifth grade mediated the effects of parenting on moral reticence for late adolescent boys.

3. Identitas Jurnal:
·         Title : Fear and Courage: A Psychological Perspective
·         Author: Stanley J Rachman
·         Volume: 71
·         Issue: 1
·         Pages: 149-176
·         Number of pages: 28
·         Publication : 2004
·         Publisher: New School for Social Research, Graduate Faculty
·         Place of publication: New York
·         ISSN: 0037783X
·         ProQuest document ID: 209669963
·         Copyright: Copyright New School for Social Research, Graduate Faculty Spring 2004

Abstrak :
Rachman elaborates on fearlessness that was enhanced by a paradox that emerged out of the introduction of behavioral methods for the treatment of abnormal fears. In his research on courage, the results emphasize the continuity of behavior: fear, and acts of courage, are not confined to select groups of people, in which extreme fear is not necessarily a form of pathology, and all people are capable of courageous actions. In the case of the destruction of the World Trade Center wherein there was a dispute as to whether or not the perpetrators were cowardly, it is not possible to answer that question since there was virtually no knowledge of the attacker's psychological state before and during the attacks.

4. Identitas jurnal :
·         Title : Courage and skill - tackling the big, difficult issues
·         Author: Gary Lashko
·         Volume: 9
·         Issue: 4
·         Pages: 2-5
·         Number of pages: 4
·         Publication :Des 2006
·         Publisher: Pier Professional Ltd.
·         Place of publication: Brighton, UK
·         ISSN: 14608790
·         ProQuest document ID: 211900704
·         Copyright: Copyright Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd. Dec 2006

       Abstrak :
The argument runs like this: 1) Mental health problems are the largest single cause of disability and illness in England, but many people cannot access evidence-based NHS psychological services due to variable provision (postcode lottery) and long waiting lists. 2) The programme aims to expand treatment choices for those with common mental health problems, to enable and promote the health and well-being of the whole population,and in particular of key groups such as BME communities, carers, new mothers, older people and children. 3)Improving the health and well-being of the whole population may lead to reduced social exclusion and stigma associated with mental health, enable people with mental health problems to stay in or return to work, and lead to resource savings (time and money) for the NHS. 4) The current phase of the programme (2006/07) is to develop practical approaches to the application of the NICE evidence-based, stepped-care model for psychological services. 5) The next phase of the programme (2007/08) will be an extended pilot phase to develop a primary care PCT commissioner-led approach to implementation.

5. Identitas Jurnal :
·         Title : Hardiness and the Concept of Courage
·         Author : Cooper R. Woodard
·         Volume : 56
·         Issue : 3
·         Pages :  173–185
·         Copyright : The Educational Publishing Foundation and the Society of Consulting
     Psychology 2004
·         Link : psycnet.apa.org/journals/cpb/56/3/173

Abstrak :
The purpose of the present study was to develop a measure of courage in order to examine the relationship between hardiness and physiological functioning, as hardiness has been proposed to buffer the physical effects of stress on the body. An empirically derived instrument that measures courage was constructed. A pool of potential scale items was administered to 200 college students and reduced to an optimal grouping. Four main factors were identified. An additional sample of 80 college students was administered the reduced Courage Scale, the Personal Views Survey (S. Maddi, 1990), the Courage Scale (N. B. Schmidt & M. Koselka, 2000), and the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler, M. Masuda, & T. H. Holmes, 1968). Results indicated that there were relationships among these various measures. However, courage did not add to the amount of the variance of physiological health accounted for by hardiness. Possible uses of the Courage Scale developed in the present study are discussed. 

6. Identitas Jurnal:
·         Title : Moral personality of brave and caring exemplars
·         Author : Lawrence J. Walker & Jeremy A. Walker
·         Volume : 93
·         Issue : 5
·         Pages : 845-860
·         Publication : Nov 2007
·         Publisher : American Psychological Association
·         ISSN: 0022-3514
·         ID PubMed: 17983304
·         ID dokumen ProQuest: 614475355
·         Copyright : © American Psychological Association 2007

Abstrak :
Two contrasting types of moral exemplars were examined so as to identify personality variables associated with moral action. The sample comprised 50 Canadian awardees for either exceptional bravery or caring, as well as 50 comparison participants. Participants responded to a set of personality questionnaires and a life-review interview. Personality variables were found to substantially augment moral cognition in the prediction of exemplary action. In support of the notion that there is a personological core to the moral domain, it was found that moral exemplars were distinguished from the comparison groups by themes embodied in their life narratives. Specifically, moral exemplars had stronger motivational themes of both agency and communion, were more likely to construe critical life events redemptively, more frequently identified helpers in early life, and reported more secure attachments. Furthermore, the personality of caring exemplars was more nurturant, generative, and optimistic than that of brave exemplars; these somewhat divergent personality profiles imply multiple ideals of moral maturity.

7.  Identitas Jurnal:
·         Title : War and the evolution of belligerence and bravery
·         Author : Laurent Lehmann* and Marcus W. Feldman
·         Publication : 2008
·         Volume : 275
·         Issue : 10
·         Pages : 2877–2885
·         Copyright : The Royal Society 2008
·         Link : rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/276/1675/4083.2.short

Tribal war occurs when a coalition of individuals use force to seize reproduction-enhancing resources, and it may have affected human evolution. Here, we develop a population-genetic model for the coevolution of costly male belligerence and bravery when war occurs between groups of individuals in a spatially subdivided population. Belligerence is assumed to increase an actor’s group probability of trying to conquer another group. An actor’s bravery is assumed to increase his group’s ability to conquer an attacked group.We show that the selective pressure on these two traits can be substantial even in groups of large size, and that they may be driven by two independent reproduction-enhancing resources: additional mates for males and additional territory (or material resources) for females. This has consequences for our understanding of the evolution of intertribal interactions, as hunter-gatherer societies are well known to have frequently raided neighbouring groups from whom they appropriated territory, goods and women.

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