Universitas Mercu Buana

Unggul, Bermutu dan Bermanfaat

Theme of Journal : Body Image Edition : X (January, 18th 2015)


1.      Journal Identity
Title           : Body Image, Relationships, and Time
Author       : Gail Tom, Alice Chen, Harriet Liao, Jian Shao
Publication title : The Journal of Psychology
Volume     : 139
Issue          : 5
Pages         : 458-468 
Number of pages : 11
Publication : Sep 2005
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 00223980
ProQuest document ID: 213825961
Copyright  : Copyright HELDREF PUBLICATIONS Sep 2005

Abstact:
The cultural standard of an impossible-to-attain ideal body image has been blamed for a plethora of psychological ills, from low self-esteem to eating disorders. In this study, the authors investigated the importance of current body image dissatisfaction compared with the ideal for married couples and for single people. The results indicated that although body image dissatisfaction exists in both married and single people, this discrepancy is of significantly less importance to married couples. The importance of long-lasting, satisfying relationships decreases the importance of body dissatisfaction and mitigates the impact of unrealistic ideal body image.

2.   Journal Identity
Title             : Changes in neuronal correlates of body image processing by means of cognitive-behavioural body image therapy for eating disorders: a randomized controlled fMRI study
Author       : S. Vocks, D. Schulte, M. Busch, D. Grönemeyer, S. Herpertz, B. Suchan
Publication title : Psychological Medicine
Volume     : 41
Issue          : 8
Pages         : 1651-1663 
Number of pages : 13
Publication : Aug 2011
Country of publication: United Kingdom
ISSN         : 00332917
ProQuest document ID: 904036034
Copyright  : Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010

Abstact:
Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated abnormalities in visual body image processing in anorexia and bulimia nervosa, possibly underlying body image disturbance in these disorders. Although cognitive behavioural interventions have been shown to be successful in improving body image disturbance in eating disorders, no randomized controlled study has yet analysed treatment-induced changes in neuronal correlates of visual body image processing.
Method: Altogether, 32 females with eating disorders were randomly assigned either to a manualized cognitive behavioural body image therapy consisting of 10 group sessions, or to a waiting list control condition. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain responses to viewing photographs of one's own and another female's body taken from 16 standardized perspectives while participants were wearing a uniform bikini were acquired before and after the intervention and the waiting time, respectively.
Results: Data indicate a general blood oxygen level dependent signal enhancement in response to looking at photographs of one's own body from pre- to post-treatment, whereas exclusively in the control group activation decreases from pre- to post-waiting time were observed. Focused activation increases from pre- to posttreatment were found in the left middle temporal gyrus covering the coordinates of the extrastriate body area and in bilateral frontal structures including the middle frontal gyrus.
Conclusions: Results point to a more intense neuronal processing of one's own body after the cognitive behavioural body image therapy in cortical regions that are responsible for the visual processing of the human body and for selfawareness.


3.   Journal Identity
Title           : Body Image Perceptions in Men With Prostate Cancer
Author       : Harrington, Joanne M, PhD, AOCNP, APRN-C;
  Jones, Elaine G, PhD, RN;
  Badger,  Terry, PhD, RN, FAAN
Volume     : 36
Issue          : 2
Pages         : 167-172 
Number of pages : 6
Publication : Mar 2009
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 0190535X
ProQuest document ID: 223115859
Copyright  : Copyright Oncology Nursing Society Mar 2009

Abstact:
To describe changes in body image among men with prostate cancer who were either prescribed androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) or were ADT naive and to explore the relationship of age, duration of therapy, and body mass index with body image perception. Exploratory and descriptive. Ambulatory care clinic of a large urban Veterans Affairs medical center. 132 men 60 years of age or older with prostate cancer recruited from the oncology and urology outpatient departments. Participants completed a demographic survey and the Body Image Scale (BIS), an instrument developed to measure changes in body image. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to explore body image dissatisfaction. Body image and ADT. A significant difference in body image dissatisfaction existed between men who had received ADT and men who  were ADT naive. No relationship was identified between age and body image dissatisfaction or between duration of therapy and body image dissatisfaction. A significant positive relationship was found between body mass index and body image dissatisfaction for the sample overall. A greater degree of body image dissatisfaction existed in the men who received ADT as compared to those who were ADT naive. Patients receiving ADT for prostate cancer may be at greater risk of body image dissatisfaction. The psychometric performance of the BIS lends support to its continued use in this population.


4.   Journal Identity
Title            : Racial Identity and Gender as Moderators of the Relationship Between Body Image and Self-esteem for African Americans
Author       : Christina N. Oney & Elizabeth R. Cole
Volume     : 65
Issue          : -
Pages         : 619–631
Publication : April 2011
ISSN         : DOI 10.1007/s11199-011-9962-z
Copyright  : Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Abstact:
This study explored whether multiple dimensions of racial identity and gender moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for African American men and women (N=425) using an intersectional approach. Centrality (strength of identification with racial group), private regard (positive feelings about racial group), public regard (positive feelings others have about racial group), and gender moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for a sample of men (n=109) and women (n=316) college students from three regions of the United States. Body dissatisfaction was related to lower self-esteem only for those African Americans for whom race was less central to their identities. High private regard and low body dissatisfaction were synergistically associated with higher self-esteem. Similarly, low public regard and high body dissatisfaction were synergistically related to lower self-esteem. There was a positive main effect for assimilation ideology (emphasis on similarities between African Americans and Western society) on self-esteem; however it was not a significant moderator. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem was stronger for women than for men. This study extends our knowledge of the ways in which racial attitudes and gender shape how African Americans experience their bodies and are related to self-esteem.


5.   Journal Identity
Title            : The relationship between women's body satisfaction and self-image across the life span: The role of cognitive control
Author       : Jessica Webster, Marika Tiggemann
Publication title : The Journal of Genetic Psychology
Volume     : 164
Issue          : 2
Pages         : 241-252 
Publication : Jun 2003
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 00221325
ProQuest document ID: 228449655
Copyright  : Copyright HELDREF PUBLICATIONS Jun 2003

Abstact:
The authors examined the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-image across the life span. A sample of 106 women between the ages of 20 and 65 years completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, body importance, cognitive control over the body, self-concept, and self-esteem. The authors found that body dissatisfaction and body importance did not differ among the groups of women who were younger, middle aged, and older. Although body dissatisfaction was related to self-concept and selfesteem for the entire sample, the strength of that relationship reduced with increasing age and increasing perceptions of cognitive control. The authors concluded that the cognitive strategies of women who were older their self-concept and self-esteem from the influence of body dissatisfaction.


6.   Journal Identity
Title             : Self-concept and body image of Turkish high school male athletes and nonathletes
Author       : F. Hulya Asci, Hulya Gokmen, Gul Tiryaki, Alper Asci
Publication title : Adolescence
Volume     : 32
Issue          : 128
Pages         : 959-968 
Number of pages : 10
Publication : 1997
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 00332917
ProQuest document ID: 195938207
Copyright  : Copyright Libra Publishers Incorporated Winter 1997

Abstact:
This study was conducted to determine the differences in self-concept and body image satisfaction and the relation between self-concept and body image among 174 Turkish high school male athletes and 174 nonathletes. The subjects were randomly selected from public high schools which represent middle socioeconomic status in Ankara. The Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents and Berscheid, Walster, and Bohrnstedt's Body Image Questionnaire were administered to all participants. Significant differences were found in social acceptance, athletic competence, and physical appearance subscales of self-concept (p <.05), as well as in mean body image satisfaction among both groups (p <.05). There were also significant correlations between subscales of self-concept and body image for athletes and nonathletes.

7.   Journal Identity
Title            : Is Smoking Related to Body Image Satisfaction, Stress, and Self-esteem in Young Adults?
Author       : Ivana T. Croghan, Carrie Bronars, Christu A. Patten, Darrell R. Schroeder
Publication title : American Journal of Health Behavior
Volume     : 30
Issue          : 3
Pages         : 322-333 
Number of pages : 12
Publication : May/ Juni 2006
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 10873244
ProQuest document ID: 211848221
Copyright  : Copyright PNG Publications May/Jun 2006

Abstact:
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of smoking and gender with body image satisfaction, perceived stress, and self-esteem in young adults. METHODS: Respondents completed a survey consisting of Perceived Stress Scale, Body-Areas Satisfaction Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Current smokers (n = 483) and never smokers (n = 973) are included. RESULTS: Smoking and female gender were independently associated with higher perceived stress (P <0.001). Female gender was associated with lower body image satisfaction and lower self-esteem (P <0.001). Current smoking was associated with lower self-esteem (P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Smoking treatment should include stress management and self-esteem and body image improvement.


8.   Journal Identity
Title            : The Effects of Hysterectomy on Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Marital Adjustment in Turkish Women With Gynecologic Cancer
Author       : Gul Pinar, Seyda Okdem, Nevin Dogan, Lale Buyukgonenc, Ali Ayhan
Publication title : Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
Volume     : 16
Issue          : 3
Pages         : 99-104 
Number of pages : 6
Publication : Jun 2012
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 10921095
ProQuest document ID: 1020692923
Copyright  : Copyright Oncology Nursing Society Jun 2012

Abstact:
The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences in the effect of hysterectomy on body image, self-esteem, and marital adjustment in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer based on specific independent variables, including age, education, employment, having or not having children, and income. This cross-sectional study compared a group of women who underwent a hysterectomy (n = 100) with a healthy control group (n = 100). The study findings indicate that women who had a hysterectomy were found in worse conditions in terms of body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment compared to healthy women. In terms of dyadic adjustment and body image among women who had undergone a hysterectomy, those with lower levels of income and education were found in poorer conditions. The study's findings show that hysterectomies have negative effects on body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment in women affected by gynecologic cancer. Nursing assessment of self-esteem and marital adjustment indicators and implementation of strategies to increase self-confidence and self-esteem are needed for high-risk women.


9.   Journal Identity
Title             : Body Image in Men: Self-Reported Thoughts, Feelings, and Behaviors in Response to Media Images
Author         : Helen J. Fawkner, Nancy E. McMurray
Publication title : International Journal of Men's Health
Volume     : 1
Issue          : 2
Pages         : 137 
Publication : May 2002
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 15326306
ProQuest document ID: 222857812
Copyright  : Copyright Men's Studies Press May 31, 2002

Abstact:
Pope et al. (1999, 2000) contend that exposure to these idealized muscular images from a young age may predispose men to muscle dysmorphia. Implicit in this suggestion is that the presentation of these idealized media images would result in men attempting to conform to these images and promote body dissatisfaction among men, which may then result in greater health risk behaviors. Additionally, based on a cross-cultural comparison of American and Austrian men (Mangweth et al., 1997), it has been hypothesized that body image disturbance might be more prominent in American culture as a result of the presentation of these idealized images. To date, however, there is no research examining the direct effects of media exposure on body dissatisfaction, eating pathology, or other health-related behaviors in men. There is, however, both indirect and direct evidence supporting the hypothesis that media exposure can negatively influence health behaviors in women (Hoek et al., 1995; Stice, 1994; Stice &Shaw, 1994), particularly influencing eating pathology by perpetuating the thin ideal (Stice, 1994). Stice examined the direct effect of media exposure on eating pathology. Structural equation modeling revealed a direct effect of media exposure on eating pathology and a link between media exposure and gender-role endorsement, the internalization of body stereotypes, and body dissatisfaction. As with women, it is feasible (suggested by Pope et al., 1999) that the increased presentation of idealized (and distorted) images of men may contribute to increased body concern among men. Further, as many of the media images presented in other cultures, in particular Australia, originate from the United States, it could be anticipated that body image disturbance might become more prominent in these cultures. An initial step in understanding the association between the media and men's perceptions of their bodies, body satisfaction, and health-related behaviors is to gain some understanding of men's perceptions of and reactions to these media images. Perhaps the most interesting finding with respect to men's perceptions of the media is the selective attention paid to the diverse male images presented by the media and the subsequent influence that this appears to have on affect and behavior. Two theories can be drawn upon in an attempt to explain this finding: Cash and Labarge's (1996) adaptation of Markus' (1977) self-schema theory can perhaps help explain some of the differences, as can Connell's (1995) psychosocial theory of masculinity. According to Markus, schemas influence the processing of information about the self such that people will attend to and interpret information from the environment in ways that are consistent with their self-images. People's self-schemas and core beliefs about what is important vary enormously and are the product of their upbringing and life experiences. Therefore, some people are strongly appearance-schematic while others are much less so (Cash & Labarge, 1996), and those who are appearance-schematic will attend to appearance-related information from the environment and process it differently to those who are less schematic in relation to appearance. According to Cash and Grant (Cash, 1994a, 1994b; Cash & Grant, 1996; Grant & Cash, 1995), contextual cues serve to activate schemadriven processing about one's appearance, which produce affective experiences about one's body, and these activate self-regulatory behaviors.



10. Journal Identity
Title             : Racial Identity and Gender as Moderators of the Relationship Between Body Image and Self-esteem for African Americans
Author         : Christina N. Oney, Elizabeth R. Cole, Robert M. Sellers
Publication title : Sex Roles
Volume     : 65
Issue          : 7-8
Pages         : 619-631 
Publication : Oct 2011
Country of publication: Netherlands
ISSN         : 03600025
ProQuest document ID: 896027091
Copyright  : Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Abstact:
This study explored whether multiple dimensions of racial identity and gender moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for African American men and women (N=425) using an intersectional approach. Centrality (strength of identification with racial group), private regard (positive feelings about racial group), public regard (positive feelings others have about racial group), and gender moderated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem for a sample of men (n=109) and women (n=316) college students from three regions of the United States. Body dissatisfaction was related to lower self-esteem only for those African Americans for whom race was less central to their identities. High private regard and low body dissatisfaction were synergistically associated with higher self-esteem. Similarly, low public regard and high body dissatisfaction were synergistically related to lower self-esteem. There was a positive main effect for assimilation ideology (emphasis on similarities between African Americans and Western society) on selfesteem; however it was not a significant moderator. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and selfesteem was stronger for women than for men. This study extends our knowledge of the ways in which racial attitudes and gender shape how African Americans experience their bodies and are related to selfesteem.


11. Journal Identity
Title             : Body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and sex role identity in midlife  women
Author         : Potts, Nicki Lee Warren
Publication title : ProQuest Dissertations and Theses
Number of pages : 180
Publication : 1993
Country of publication: United States
ProQuest document ID: 304106649
Copyright  : Copyright UMI - Dissertations Publishing 1993

Abstact:

Many women in Western society are dissatisfied with their body image and feel pressured to conform to a culturally prescribed standard which is difficult to attain. Although numerous studies have examined body image concerns in adolescents and young adult females, data about women in midlife is sparse. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationships among body image dissatisfaction, selfesteem, sex-role identity, body mass index, and body size discrepancy in midlife women. The nonprobability sample consisted of 170 predominantly Caucasian (91%) women between the ages of 35 and 50, with a mean age of 41. The majority were married (69%), had a college or graduate degree (82%), and had a mean annual income of $40,000 to \$60,000. Study instruments were: the Body Shape Questionnaire, measuring body image dissatisfaction, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory which determined the sex-role category of each subject. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.5 which is at the upper end of the desirable weight range. The level of body image dissatisfaction was high, with most (87%) women wanting to be thinner, although only 35% were actually overweight. Body size discrepancy, self-esteem, and body mass index accounted for 41% of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Mother's weight as an adult, body shape (apple vs. pear), and income accounted for an additional 19% of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Sex-role identity did not predict body image dissatisfaction, nor were there significant differences in body image dissatisfaction for sexrole identity groups. The level of body image dissatisfaction differed significantly according to body mass index group. The underweight group (BMI $<$ 20) had the lowest level of dissatisfaction, and the obese group (BMI = 30-39.9) had the highest level of dissatisfaction. Women with a pear shape (a lower body distribution of fat) had a higher level of body image dissatisfaction than women with an apple shape (an abdominal distribution of fat). This study indicates that many women in midlife have incorporated society's image of the ideal female body, and not measuring up to that ideal, they are dissatisfied. This dissatisfaction is primarily demonstrated as a desire to be thinner. Data also suggest that although the typical female distribution of body fat is protective for cardiovascular disease, women are dissatisfied with this pear shape.



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