Universitas Mercu Buana

Unggul, Bermutu dan Bermanfaat

Theme of Journal : Bystander Edition : XV (February, 22 2015)

1.      Journal Identity
Title             : Trauma Reactions of Bystanders and Victims to Repetitive Abuse  Experiences
Author       : Janson, Gregory R; Hazler, Richard J
Volume     : 19
Issue          : 2
Pages         : 239-255              
Number of pages : 17
Publication : Apr 2004
Country of publication: United States
ISSN         : 08866708
ProQuest document ID: 208521551
Copyright  : Copyright Springer Publishing Company Apr 2004

This study investigated psychological distress as measured by the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and physiological reactivity as measured by skin conductance and heart rate in bystanders as compared to direct victims of prevalent forms of repetitive abuse (e.g., bullying). Participants (N = 77) were interviewed twice: once to recall witnessing another person be abused repeatedly over time, and again to recall similar experiences as a victim. Present levels for bystander and victim distress were not significantly different, but distress levels were significantly greater for victim experiences at the time the repetitive abuse occurred. Scores for both groups were comparable to or exceeded scores associated with natural disasters and other life threatening experiences reported in the literature. Findings suggest repetitive abuse may affect bystanders and victims in similarly serious ways at the time the events occur and later in life.

2.   Journal Identity
Title             : Understanding the Role of Bystanders and Peer Support in School Bullying
Author         : Cowie, Helen
Volume       : 6
Issue           : 1
Pages           : 26-32 
Publication  : Apr 2014
Country of publication: Malta
ISSN                     : -
ProQuest document ID: 1526112364
Copyright  : Copyright European Centre for Educational Resilience and Socio-Emotional Health Apr 2014

Research into school bullying has traditionally focussed on the actual protagonists - the perpetrators and the targets. Consequently, we know a great deal about the psychological characteristics of bullies and victims and the consequences of bullying in undermining the emotional well-being of both targets and perpetrators. While an understanding of the personal aspects of the bully-victim relationship is important, it only addresses part of the issue. Bullying is experienced within a group of peers who adopt different participant roles and who experience a range of emotions. In this article, I argue that bullies do not act alone but rely on reinforcement from their immediate group of friends as well as the tacit approval of the onlookers. This article explores the conflicting emotions often experienced by the bystanders. It also makes some suggestions about interventions to empower bystanders to take action against bullying through, for example, such interventions as peer support.

3.   Journal Identity
Title           : Bystanders' Reactions to Sexual Harassment
Author       : Benavides-espinoza, Claudia; Cunningham, George B
Volume     : 63
Issue          : 3-4
Pages         : 201-213 
Publication : Aug 2010
Country of publication: Netherlands
ISSN         : 03600025
ProQuest document ID: 746475797
Copyright  : Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

The purpose of this investigation was to examine bystanders' reactions to observing sexual harassment. Undergraduate students (n=107 and n=122, respectively) in the Southwest U.S. participated in two experiments in which they read about cases of sexual harassment and responded with their preferred punishment for the offenses. Findings from both studies demonstrate the importance of (a) a proactive organizational culture, (b) handing down punishments for sexual harassment that match both the severity of the infraction and the culture of the workplace, and (c) remaining cognizant of the potentia differences in the ways women and men respond to observing sexual harassment in the workplace.

4.   Journal Identity
Title           : Aggression does not increase friendly contacts among bystanders in geladas (Theropithecus gelada)
Author       : Leone, Alessia; Mignini, Michele; Mancini, Giada; Palagi, Elisabetta
Volume     : 51
Issue          : 4
Pages         : 299-305
Publication : Oct 2010
ISSN         : 00328332
ProQuest document ID: 750900976
Copyright  : Japan Monkey Centre and Springer 2010

Aggression within a social group may affect bystanders' affinitive behaviour with other bystanders. After a conflict such affiliations, termed 'quadratic', may serve to reduce tension. This particular kind of conflict management has been found in hamadryas baboons. Following the classical and well-established approach for studying post-conflict behaviour [post-conflict/matched control method (PC/MC)], we collected behavioural data on a group of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) in order to check for the presence of quadratic affiliations. A total of 192 PC/MC pairs were collected on both adults and immature individuals. We did not find any increase of affiliation levels between bystanders during PC compared with MC condition. The distribution of affinitive quadratic interactions was not affected by either kinship or relationship quality of bystanders. Moreover, comparison of yawning and self-scratching behaviours (two of the typical non-primate displacement activities under stressful situations) recorded during PCs and MCs did not show any variation in the two conditions. Probably, due to the male tolerance and social cohesiveness in geladas, witnessing a fight does not necessarily induce a sufficient increase of tension in bystanders to be reduced by quadratic affiliation.

5.   Journal Identity
Title          : Thoughts, feelings, and motivations of bystanders who attempt to resuscitate a stranger: A pilot study
Author        : Skora, Joyce; Riegel, Barbara
Volume     : 10
Issue          : 6
Pages         : 408-416 
Publication :  Nov 2001
ISSN         : 10623264
ProQuest document ID: 227897190
Copyright  : Copyright American Association of Critical - Care Nurses Nov 2001


BACKGROUND: Rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation remain low nationwide. Possibly, low rates can be explained by examining the reactions of laypersons who attempt to resuscitate a stranger. OBJECTIVE: To examine the thoughts, feelings, and motivations of laypersons who have attempted to resuscitate a stranger. METHOD: Survey methods were used to do a qualitative study of 12 laypersons who had provided bystander resuscitation. A 36-item questionnaire of predominately open-ended questions was used to elicit retrospective information about the laypersons' thoughts, feelings, and motivations during several stages of the resuscitation event. Data were analyzed by using content analysis. RESULTS: Thoughts about the event included curiosity, questioning of personal capability, and recognition of differences between classroom training and real-life events. Feelings included hope, euphoria, pride, relief, satisfaction, hopelessness, doubt, agitation, anger, sadness, and fear. Primary motivations were duty and responsibility, guilt and social pressure, and altruism. All participants reported that they had excellent recall of the event. CONCLUSION: These results provide insight into a population that acts on behalf of the medical community.

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