Universitas Mercu Buana

Unggul, Bermutu dan Bermanfaat

Theme of Journal : Speech Delay Edition : XXIX (June 7, 2015)

1.      Journal Identity
Title            : The Efficacy of Treatment for Children With Developmental Speech and Language Delay/Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
Author        : Law, James; Garrett, Zoe; Nye, Chad
Volume      : 47
Issue           : 4
Pages          : 924-943
Publication : Aug 2004
Country of publication: United States
ISSN          : 10924388   
Copyright   : Copyright American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Aug 2004
ProQuest document ID: 232341970

A meta-analysis was carried out of interventions for children with primary developmental speech and language delays/disorders. The data were categorized depending on the control group used in the study (no treatment, general stimulation, or routine speech and language therapy) and were considered in terms of the effects of intervention on expressive and receptive phonology, syntax, and vocabulary. The outcomes used in the analysis were dependent on the aims of the study; only the primary effects of intervention are considered in this review. These were investigated at the level of the target of therapy, measures of overall linguistic development, and broader measures of linguistic functioning taken from parent report or language samples. Thirty-six articles reporting 33 different trials were found. Of these articles, 25 provided sufficient information for use in the meta-analyses; however, only 13 of these, spanning 25 years, were considered to be sufficiently similar to be combined. The results indicated that speech and language therapy might be effective for children with phonological or expressive vocabulary difficulties. There was mixed evidence concerning the effectiveness of intervention for children with expressive syntax difficulties and little evidence available considering the effectiveness of intervention for children with receptive language difficulties. No significant differences were found between interventions administered by trained parents and those administered by clinicians. The review identified longer duration (>8 weeks) of therapy as being a potential factor in good clinical outcomes. A number of gaps in the evidence base are Identified.

2.    Journal Identity
Title          : Prevalence of speech delay in 6-year-old children and comorbidity with language impairment
Author      : Shriberg, Lawrence D; Tomblin, J Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L
Volume    : 42
Issue         : 6
Pages        : 1461-1481
Publication : Dec 1999
Country of publication: United States
ISSN        : 10924388
Copyright :  Copyright American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Dec 1999
ProQuest document ID: 232347365

We estimate the prevalence of speech delay (L. D. Shriberg, D. Austin, B. A. Lewis, J. L. McSweeny, &D. L. Wilson, 1997b) in the United States on the basis of findings from a demographically representative population subsample of 1,328 monolingual English-speaking 6-year-old children.

3Journal Identity
Title          : Probability estimates and paths to consonant normalization in children with speech delay
Author      :  Gruber, Frederic A
Volume    : 42
Issu           : 2
Pages        : 448-459
Publication : Apr 1999
Country of publication: United States
ISSN        : 10924388
Copyright :  Copyright American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Apr 1999
ProQuest document ID: 23234343

Probable ages of normalization were calculated for 24 children with speech delay, using Kaplan-Meier analysis and a threshold score of 85% on the Percent of Consonants Correct, Percent of Consonants Correct-Adjusted, and Percent of Consonants Correct-Revised metrics. Simple formulas are provided that permit calculation of the likelihood that individual children with speech delay will normalize by a given age. The sex of a child was found to have no significant influence on age of normalization. Analysis revealed two different paths to normalization. In Path A, errors of deletion, substitution, and omission declined as correct productions increased. In Path B, common clinical distortions increased as deletions and substitutions decreased. The ages of more and less rapid phonological gain correspond to and partially explain the findings of Shriberg, Gruber, and Kwiatkowski (1994), who studied more severely involved children. Children who follow Path B are those who retain residual errors in their speech.

4.    Journal Identity
Title          : A Subtype of Speech Delay Associated With Developmental Psychosocial Involvement
Author      : Hauner, Katherina K Y; Shriberg, Lawrence D; Kwiatkowski, Joan; Allen, Chad T
Publication : Jun 2005
Title          : An Objective and Time-Efficient Method for Determining Severity of Childhood Speech Delay
Author      : Johnson, Carol A; Weston, Audrey D; Bain, Barbara A
Volume    : 48
Issu           : 3
Pages        : 635-650
Country of publication: United States
ISSN        : 10924388
Copyright: Copyright American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Jun 2005
ProQuest document ID: 232345398

This report presents findings supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant subtype of childhood speech sound disorder, provisionally titled speech delay-developmental psychosocial involvement (SD-DPI). Conversational speech samples from 29 children who met inclusionary criteria for SD-DPI were selected from a case record archive at a university speech clinic for children. Participants with SD-DPI had been characterized by speech clinicians and caregivers as having speech delay with psychosocial issues that required attention in the course of at least 1 semester of speech treatment. The 29 participants were divided into 2 subgroups, based on clinicians' and parents' records indicating either approach-related negative affect (n = 23) or withdrawalrelated negative affect (n = 6). Each participant with SD-DPI was matched by age, gender, and type of speech involvement to 3 comparison speakers with speech delay of unknown origin (n = 87). Analyses of the conversational speech samples indicated that in comparison with participants in the control group, those with SD-DPI had significantly more severe speech delay, averaging approximate y 7% to 10% lowered speech competence in conversation. The clinical prevalence of SD-DPI was estimated at approximately 12% of children referred to the university speech clinic in the present study. The authors interpret the present findings to indicate that approach-related or withdrawal-related negative affect, negative emotionality or mood, and decreased task persistence or attention are risk factors for increased severity of expression of speech delay.

5.    Journal Identity
Volume    : 13
Issu           : 1
Pages        : 55-65
Publication : Feb 2004
Country of publication: United States
ISSN        : 10580360
Copyright: Copyright American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Feb 2004
ProQuest document ID: 204265256


To address the need for an efficient and valid approach to determining the severity of a child's speech delay, this study compared 2 types of sampling procedures to derive a measure of percentage of consonants correct (PCC; L. D. Shriberg &J. Kwiatkowski, 1982). PCC scores of twenty-one 4- to 6-year-old children with speech delay derived from both an imitative sentence task and a conversational task were compared. Scores did not differ significantly and corresponded favorably with a reference criterion (S. M. Benner, 1992) for determining clinical equivalence. The imitative approach required considerably less time to complete. Thus, the sentence imitation procedure offers a valid and efficient alternative to conversational sampling. However, clinicians should consider individual child characteristics when choosing an imitative approach.

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