Universitas Mercu Buana

Unggul, Bermutu dan Bermanfaat

Theme of Journal : Reinforcement (14 Mei 2017)


1. Journal Identity
Title                  : MONETARY INCENTIVES TO REINFORCE ENGAGEMENT AND
ACHIEVEMENT IN A JOB-SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM FOR HOMELESS, UNEMPLOYED ADULTS
Author             : Mikhail n. Koffarnus, Conrad j. Wong, Michael fingerhood,
Dace s. Svikis, George e. Bigelow, and Kenneth silverman
Volume           : 2013
Issue                : 46
Pages               : 582 - 591
Publication      : 2013
ISSN               : -
Copyright       
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1459583192/fulltextPDF/C97654F4698940EAPQ/3?accountid=34643

Abstract
The current study examined whether monetary incentives could increase engagement and
achievement in a job-skills training program for unemployed, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. Participants (n ¼ 124) were randomized to a no-reinforcement group (n ¼ 39), during which access to the training program was provided but no incentiveswere given; a training reinforcement group (n ¼ 42), during which incentives were contingent on attendance and performance; or an abstinence and training reinforcement group (n ¼ 43), during which incentives werecontingent on attendance and performance, but access was granted only if participants demonstrated abstinence from alcohol. abstinence and training reinforcement and training reinforcement participants advanced further in training and attended more hours than no-reinforcement participants. Monetary incentives were effective in promoting engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for individuals who often do not take advantage of training programs

2, Journal Identity
Title                  : FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS SCREENING FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
MAINTAINED BY AUTOMATIC REINFORCEMENT
Author             : Angie c. Querim, Brian a. Iwata, Eileen m. Roscoe, Kevin j. Schlichenmeyer Javier Virués Ortega and Kylee E. Hurl
Volume           : 46
Issue                : -
Pages               : 46 - 60
Publication      : 2013
ISSN               : -
Copyright       
http://search.proquest.com/docview/1351567438/fulltextPDF/C97654F4698940EAPQ/9?accountid=34643

Abstract
A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected.We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases.

3. Journal Identity
Title                             : Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate
Author                         : Michelle G. Bubnik & Larry W. Hawk Jr. & William E. Pelham Jr. & James G. Waxmonsky & Keri S. Rosch
Volume                       : 43
Issue                            : -
Pages                           : 149–161
Publication                  : 2015
ISSN                           : 10802-014-9891-8
Copyright                    Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Inc.Document URL    https://search.proquest.com/docview/1643361974/3352580EA148444DPQ/16?accountid=34643

Abstract
Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12 % female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22 % female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n=19; 21 % female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention.
Keywords:  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder , ADHD , Sustained attention , Vigilance , Continuous performance task , Reinforcement , Methylphenidate

4. Journal Identity
Title                 : Probabilistic Reinforcement Learning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Author             : Marjorie Solomon, Anne C. Smith, Michael J. Frank, Stanford Ly, and Cameron S. Carter
Volume           : -
Issue                : 4
Page                : 1-12
Publication      : Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com)
DOI                 :10.1002/aur.177
Copyright        : ©2011 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
URL                :  http://ski.clps.brown.edu/papers/SolomonEtAl_PS_ASD.pdf

Abstract
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be conceptualized as disorders of learning, however there have been few experimental studies taking this perspective. Methods: We examined the probabilistic reinforcement learning performance of 28 adults with ASDs and 30 typically developing adults on a task requiring learning relationships between three stimulus pairs consisting of Japanese characters with feedback that was valid with different probabilities (80%, 70%, and 60%). Both univariate and Bayesian state–space data analytic methods were employed. Hypotheses were based on the extant literature as well as on neurobiological and computational models of reinforcement learning. Results: Both groups learned the task after training. However, there were group differences in early learning in the first task block where individuals with ASDs acquired the most frequently accurately reinforced stimulus pair (80%) comparably to typically developing individuals; exhibited poorer acquisition of the less frequently reinforced 70% pair as assessed by state–space learning curves; and outperformed typically developing individuals on the near chance (60%) pair. Individuals with ASDs also demonstrated deficits in using positive feedback to exploit rewarded choices. Conclusions: Results support the contention that individuals with ASDs are slower learners. Based on neurobiology and on the results of computational modeling, one interpretation of this pattern of findings is that impairments are related to deficits in flexible updating of reinforcement history as mediated by the orbito-frontal cortex, with spared functioning of the basal ganglia. This hypothesis about the pathophysiology of learning in ASDs can be tested using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

5. Journal Idnetity
Title                  : Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate
Author             : Bubnik, Michelle G; Hawk, Larry W; Pelham, William E; Waxmonsky, James G; Rosch, Keri SVolume         : 15
Issue                : -
Pages               : 149-161
Publication      : 2015
ISSN               : 00910627
Copyright        : Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015
Document URL:        

Abstrak

Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12 % female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22 % female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n=19; 21 % female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention
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