Universitas Mercu Buana

Unggul, Bermutu dan Bermanfaat

Theme of Journal : Transfer Stimulus (04 Mei 2017)



1. Journal Identity
Title                  : AnIntegrative Approach to Learning Processes: Revisiting Substitutionof Functions
Author             : 
Volume           :  64
Issue                : -
Pages               : 625–637
Publication      : 2014
ISSN               : -
Copyright        : Copyright Cambridge University Press, Publishing Division Winter 2004 Document URL: https://search.proquest.com/docview/201698578?accountid=34643

Abstract

 Based on the assumption that substitution of functions or function transfer is a fundamental principle underlying all conditioning processes, we attempt to produce an account where in both operant and respondent events are understood in terms of substitution. We contend that, if event interactions are described in a way that accounts for all the stimulus and response events involve dinacontingen cyrelation, and further, if we assume symmetry as a property of substitution of functions a sexcitatory backward conditioning finding sseem to suggest, traditional distinctions between operant and respondent conditioning maybe renderedun nec-essary.We present are conceptualization of respondent and operant processes and suggest alternatives for empirical research.

2. Journal Identity

Title                  : Sample Stimulus Control Shaping And Restricted Stimulus Control In Capuchin Monkeys: A Methodological Note

Volume           :95
Issue                : 3
Pages               : 387-98
Publication      : 2011
Issn                  : 00225002
Copyright        : Copyright Society For The Experimental Analysis Of Behavior May 2011
Document Url: Https://Search.Proquest.Com/Docview/867265512?Accountid=34643
Abstract
This Paper Reports Use Of Sample Stimulus Control Shaping Procedures To Teach Arbitrary Matching-To-Sample To 2 Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus Apella). The Procedures Started With Identity Matching-To-Sample. During Shaping, Stimulus Features Of The Sample Were Altered Gradually, Rendering Samples And Comparisons Increasingly Physically Dissimilar. The Objective Was To Transform Identity Matching Into Arbitrary Matching (I.E., Matching Not Based On Common Physical Features Of The Sample And Comparison Stimuli). Experiment 1 Used A Two-Comparison Procedure. The Shaping Procedure Was Ultimately Effective, But Occasional High Error Rates At Certain Program Steps Inspired A Follow-Up Study. Experiment 2 Used The Same Basic Approach, But With A Three-Comparison Matching Task. During Shaping, The Monkey Performed Accurately Until The Final Steps Of The Program. Subsequent Experimentation Tested The Hypothesis That The Decrease In Accuracy Was Due To Restricted Stimulus Control By Sample Stimulus Features That Had Not Yet Been Changed In The Shaping Program. Results Were Consistent With This Hypothesis, Thus Suggesting A New Approach That May Transform The Sample Stimulus Control Shaping Procedure From A Sometimes Useful Laboratory Tool To A More General Approach To Teaching The First Instance Of Arbitrary Matching Performances To Participants Who Show Protracted Difficulties In Learning Such Performances. [Publication Abstract]

3. Journal Identity
Title                 : Perceptual Load Corresponds With Factors Known to Influence Visual Search
Author             : Zachary J. J. Roper,Joshua D. Cosman,Shaun P. Vecera
Volume           : -
Issue                : -
Page                : 1-13
Publication      : 2013
DOI                 : 10.1037/a0031616
Copyright          : ©2013 American Psychological Association
URL                : http://www.joshcosman.com/uploads/4/8/0/3/48033031/roper_etal_jephpp_2013.pdf

Abstract
One account of the early versus late selection debate in attention proposes that perceptual load determines the locus of selection. Attention selects stimuli at a late processing level under low-load conditions but selects stimuli at an early level under high-load conditions. Despite the successes of perceptual load theory, a noncircular definition of perceptual load remains elusive. We investigated the factors that influence perceptual load by using manipulations that have been studied extensively in visual search, namely target– distractor similarity and distractor– distractor similarity. Consistent with previous work, search was most efficient when targets and distractors were dissimilar and the displays contained homogeneous distractors; search became less efficient when target– distractor similarity increased irrespective of display heterogeneity. Importantly, we used these same stimuli in a typical perceptual load task that measured attentional spillover to a task-irrelevant flanker. We found a strong correspondence between search efficiency and perceptual load; stimuli that generated efficient searches produced flanker interference effects, suggesting that such displays involved low perceptual load. Flanker interference effects were reduced in displays that produced less efficient searches. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that search difficulty, as measured by search intercept, has little bearing on perceptual load. We conclude that rather than be arbitrarily defined, perceptual load might be defined by well-characterized, continuous factors that influence visual search.

4. Journal Identity
Title                   : Transfer of learning in choice reactions: The roles of stimulus type, response mode, and set-level compatibility
 Author            : Motonori Yamaguchi and Jing Chen
Volume           : 16
Issue                : -
Pages               : 825-836
Publication      : 2016
ISSN               : -
Copyright        : Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2015
Document URL:        

Abstract
The Simon effect refers to the advantage of responding to spatially compatible stimuli. This effect can be eliminated or even reversed to favor spatially incompatible stimuli after participants practice a choice-reaction task with spatially incompatible mappings (e.g., pressing left and right keys to stimuli on the right and left, respectively). This transfer of incompatible spatial associations has been observed under conditions in which responses were made manually (e.g., keypresses, moving a joystick). The present study used vocal responses to reveal the primary determinants of the transfer effect, dissociating the influences of stimulus type, response mode, and their interaction (set-level compatibility). The results suggest that contextual match between the practice and transfer tasks with respect to stimulus type and response mode determined transfer of incompatible associations to the Simon task, and stimulus type determined the efficiency of acquiring new associations. However, there was little evidence that set-level compatibility plays any major role in either acquisition or transfer of spatial associations.

5. Journal Identity
Title                  : Relational Learning in Glaucous-Winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens)
Author             : Obozova, Tatyana A; Smirnova, Anna A; Zorina, Zoya A
Volume           : 15
Issue                : -
Pages               : 873-80
Publication      : 2012
ISSN               : 11387416
Copyright        : Copyright Universidad Complutense de Madrid 2012
Document URL:        

Abstrak
An experimental approach was created for the comparative investigation of the cognitive abilities of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in their natural habitat. The territoriality of gulls during the breeding period and the fact that the gulls inhabiting the territory of the Komandorsky Reserve are practically not in fear of humans allowed us to work with individually recognized birds directly at their nest sites inside the colony. The possibility of using this approach to investigate their cognitive abilities was demonstrated on 24 gulls, in particular, to investigate their abilities for relative size generalization. The first experiment illustrated that the gulls are able to learn to discriminate two pairs of stimuli according to the feature: 'larger' or 'smaller'. They were then given a test to transfer the discriminative rule in which novel combinations of the same stimuli were used. The gulls successfully coped with only a few of these tests. In the next experiment the birds were taught to discriminate four pairs of similar stimuli. The majority of the birds coped with the tests to transfer the discriminative rule both to the novel combinations of familiar stimuli, and also to the novel stimuli of the familiar category (items of different colour and shape). However, none of the birds transferred the discriminative rule to stimuli of a novel category (sets differing by number of components). Thus, in their ability to generalize at a preconceptual level gulls are more comparable with pigeons, whereas large-brained birds (crows and parrots), are capable of concept formation.





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